Bibliography – Public Murals and Street Art Conservation

Will Shank, Maria Chatzidakis


Thursday, June 14, 2018 – 09:00 to Friday, June 15, 2018 – 17:00 | Porto, Portugal


-Belishki, Stefan, 2012. Vandalism or artistic expression: street art on the Monument

to the Soviet Army, Sofia, Bulgaria. The Decorative: Conservation and the Applied

Arts. 2012 IIC Congress, Vienna.

-Brajer Isabelle, 2017. The problem of vandalism on contemporary outdoor murals

and street art. Conference: Vandalism & Art Organized by: Stichting Restauratie

Atelier Limburg (SRAL), Bonnefanten Museum, Maastricht, The Netherlands,

CEROART, Liege, Belgium, MACCH, Maastricht, The Netherlands 7 – 8 June, 2017


-Brajer, I., 2015. “Values and the Preservation of Contemporary Outdoor Murals”. In

S.nchez-Pons, M., Fuster-Lopez, L., and Shank, W., (eds.), Conservation Issues in

Modern and Contemporary Murals, Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars


-Buglass, J. 2015. Historic graffiti. Historic England Research, Issue 2. 2 November

2015 . Available at:


-Chatzigiannis, D. 2015. Vandalism of cultural heritage: thoughts preceding

conservation interventions. Change Over Time, 5(1):120–35.


-Cockcroft, E.S., Weber, J.P. & Cockcroft, J.D. 1977. Toward a People’s Art: The

Contemporary Mural Movement. New York: Dutton.


Development”. In Price, N., Kirby Talley, M. Melucco Vaccaro A., (eds.).

-Drescher, T., 1998. San Francisco Bay Area Murals: Communities Create Their Muses,

Berkeley: Pogo Press.

-English Heritage, n.d. The graffiti of the Richmond Castle http://www.englishheritage.

-Falser, M.,S., Lipp, W., Tomaszewski A., (eds.) 2008. Conservation and Preservation,

Interactions Between Theory and Practice, In memorial Alois Riegl (1858-1905), 2008.

Proceedings of the International Conference of the ICOMOS, Vienna. David Brown

Book Company

-Ferrell, Jeff, 1995. Urban Graffiti: Crime, Control, and Resistance. Youth & Society,

v27 n1 Sep 1995 p73-92.

-Greathouse, V., and Rainer, L., 2016. David Alfaro Siqueiros: Murals in Los Angeles A

Selected Bibliography. The Getty Conservation Institute.


Historical and Philosophical Issues in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage. Loa

Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute.

-ICOMOS, (2003). Principles for the Preservation and Conservation/Restoration of

Wall Paintings, ICOMOS.

-Jovanovich-Kelley, M. 2014. The Apotheosis of Power: Corporate Mural Commissions

in Los Angeles During the 1930S, Public Art Dialogue, 4:1, 42-70, DOI:

10.1080/21502552.2014.878483 To link to this article:

-Keegan, P. 2014. Graffiti in Antiquity. NewYork, Routledge.

-Lewisohn, C. 2009. Street Art: The Graffiti Revolution. London: Tate Publishing.


-Lowinger, R., 2015. Introduction: Vandalism. Change Over Time, 5(1):2–5.

-Mulcahy L., Flessas T., 2016. Limiting Law: Art in the Street and Street in the Art. Law,

Culture and the Humanities January 19, 2016 1-23.

-Mulcahy, Linda and Flessas, Tatiana (2015) Limiting law: art in the street and street in

the art. Law Culture and Humanities. ISSN 1743-8721.



-Neelon, C., 2003. Critical Terms for Graffiti Study [accessed 1/12/2017]. Available at:

-Pangalos, O. , Tsamantakis, Ch., 2016. The history of graffiti in Greece 1984-1994.


-Papida S., Daskalakis S., Milona V., Pavlou M., Katevas F., 2016. ‘Graffiti as historical

evidence and as deterioration of the archaeological monuments of the Ephorate of

Antiquities of Athens. Conservation and educational programs‘. Annual conference of

the Association of Conservators of Antiquities and Works of Art (PESA), Hellenic

Ministry of Culture, Athens, Stegi Roumelioton, 3-12-2016. p.31-42.

-Pereira, S. 2005. Graffiti. San Francisco: Silverback Books.

-Riegl, A., 1996. ‘The modern cult of monuments: its essence and its

-Riegl, A., 2003. Der modern DenkmalKultus, sein Wesen, sein Entstehung, Wien:

Braumüller, 1903, French transl. La Culte Moderne des Monuments, Boulet, Paris:

L’Harmattan, 2003.

-Rychlicki T., 2008. Legal questions about illegal art. Journal of Intellectual Property

Law & Practice, 2008, Vol. 3, No. 6 393-401.

-Schachter, R. 2017. Street art is a period. PERIOD. In Graffiti and street art: reading,

writing and representing the city, Avramidis, K., Tsilimpounidi M., (eds). Abingdon,

Oxon ; New York, NY : Routledge.



-Schacter, R. 2013. The World Atlas of Street Art and Graffiti. Sydney: New South


-Shank, W., “It’s Time to Compromise Over Haring’s Mural,” February 2012, The Art


-Waclawek, A..2011. Graffiti and street art. London: Thames & Hudson.

-Young A., 2014. Street Art, Public City: Law, Crime and the Urban Imagination.

Routledge. Alison Young, Judging the Image: Art, Value, Law (Abingdon: Routledge,



-Amor Garcia, R.L., Soriano, P., S.nchez-Pons, M., and Osca Pons, J., 2015.

“Aproximaci.n a la Viabilidad del uso de Strappo en la Conservaci.n de Graitis”. In

S.nchez-Pons, M., Fuster-Lopez, L., and Shank, W., (eds.), Conservation Issues in


Modern and Contemporary Murals. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 331-


-Baglioni, P., Baglioni, M., Alterini, M., Giorgi, R., Shashoua, Y., Brajer, I., 2017.

Nanofluids confined in chemical hydrogels for the selective removal of graffiti from

street art. In ICOM-CC 18th Triennial Conference Preprints, Copenhagen, 4–8

September 2017, ed. J. Bridgland, art. 0102. Paris: International Council of Museums.


-BANKSY (2005). Wall and Piece. Random House, London.

-Beerkens, L., & Mager, S. (2005). Keith Haring: Art or graffiti. The restoration of Keith

Haring’s Drawing on elevator (1986) in the Art Academy Utrecht. Beiträge zur

Erhaltung von Kunst- und Kulturgut, p. 114-122.

-Beerkens, L., 2016. Side by side: old and new standards in the conservation of

modern art. A comparative study on 20 years of modern art conservation practice,

Studies in Conservation, 61:sup2, 12-16, DOI: 10.1080/00393630.2016.1155336

-Chatzidakis M., 2016. Street art conservation in Athens: Critical conservation in a

time of crisis, Studies in Conservation, 61:sup2, 17-23, DOI:


-Ciancabilla, L (2015). The Sight Gallery. Salvaguardia e conservazione della pittura

murale urbana contemporanea a Bologna. Bononia University Press.

-Dickens J., Rava A., Perla C. M., Picollo M. & Shank W., 2016. Keith Haring in Pisa and

Melbourne: Controversy and conservation, Studies in Conservation, 61:sup2, 29-37,

DOI: 10.1080/00393630.2016.1193691 To link to this article:

-Garc.a Gayo E., 2015. Street art conservation: The drift of abandonment. SAUC –

Journal V1 – N1.


-Graves, K., Corda, K., 2016. Conserving a boundary: The conservation and

management of a Berlin Wall mural, Studies in Conservation, 61:sup2, 61-66, DOI:



-Grupo de Arte Urbano: Amor Garc.a, R., L., Giner Cordero, E., Garc.a Gayo, E., Gasol

Fargas, R., Luque Rodrigo, L., Mata Delgado, A., L.,. Parada Mart.n, M., Jes.s. S.nchez

Pons, M., Santab.rbara, C., Senserrich, R., Pastor Vals, T., .beda Garc.a, M.,

I.,l. V.zquez de la Fuente, M., (eng.translation Will Shank)., 2016. Proposed code of

ethics for the conservation and restoration of street art – Propuesta de c.digo


deontol.gico para la conservaci.n y restauraci.n de arte urbano. Monogr.fico Arte

Urbano. Conservaci.n y Restauraci.n de Intervenciones Contempor.neas. grupo de

Arte Urbano del Grupo Espa.ol del International Institute for Conservation. Pp 186-




Kyi, C., Tse, N., & Khazam, S., 2016. The potential role of citizen conservation in reshaping

approaches to murals in an urban context, Studies in Conservation, 61:sup2,

98-103, DOI: 10.1080/00393630.2016.1193690 To link to this article:

-Laise, K., and Rainer, L., 2009. Rescue public murals and conservator-artist

collaborations. AIC Paintings Specialty Group Postprints. Papers Presented at the

Thirty-sixth Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic &

Artistic Works, Denver, Colorado April 21-24, 2008. pp. 27-31.


-Lowinger, R., 2015. Vandalism (Miami Style): Graffiti as a Tool in Preserving the

Marine Stadium. Change Over Time, 5(1):136–151 Spring 2015

| 10.1353/cot.2015.0002


-Lowinger, R., and Morse, A.,, 2008. The conservation and relocation of a

monumental petrachrome mural: Helen Lundeberg’s The History of Transportation.

Conservation and Access: Contributions to the 2008 IIC Congress, London.

-MacDonald-Korth, E., Rainer, L., & Learner, T., 2015. “Research into anti-graffiti

coatings for acrylic murals: preliminary testing and evaluation,” In S.nchez-Pons, M.,

Fuster-Lopez, L., and Shank, W., (eds.), Conservation Issues in Modern and

Contemporary Murals, Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

-Rainer L., 2003. Conservation of outdoor contemporary murals. Getty Conservation

Institute Newsletter, Volume 18, Number 2 2003 The J. Paul Getty Trust .html

-Rainer, L., H., and Luann M.,, eds. 2013. The Siqueiros Legacy: Challenges of

Conserving the Artist’s Monumental Murals: Proceedings of a Symposium Organized

by the Getty Conservation Institute, October 16-17, 2012, the Getty Center, Los

Angeles. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute.


-Rainer, L., 2012. Conservation of Am.rica Tropical Presented at The Siqueiros Legacy:

Challenges of Conserving the Artist’s Monumental Murals



-Rainer, Leslie. 2011. “América Tropical: Cultural identity, controversy and

conservation of a mural.” In ICOM-CC 16th Triennial Conference Lisbon 19-23

September 2011: Preprints. ed. Janet Bridgland. Lisbon:–Produ..o Grafica,



-Rescue Public Murals, Mural Creation Best Practices http://www.conservationus.



-S.nchez-Pons, M., Fuster-Lopez, L., and Shank, W., eds., 2015. Conservation Issues in

Modern and Contemporary Murals, Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars


-Shank W. and Rava A., 2018. The complex preservation of Keith Haring’s 1987 mural

at the Hopital Necker des Enfants Malades, Paris. News in Conservation, Issue 65 April

2018, p7-11.

-Shank, W. and Hess Norris, D., 2008. Giving contemporary murals a longer life: the

challenges for muralists and conservators. In: D. Saunders, J.H. Townsend & S.

Woodcock, eds., Conservation and Access. Contributions to the 2008 IIC Congress,

London (2008 pp. 12–6.).

-Shank,W., and Drescher, T., 2016. Breaking the rules: A new life for Rescue Public

Murals, Studies in Conservation, 61:sup2, 203-207, DOI:

10.1080/00393630.2016.1188249 To link to this article:

-Vente Caritative pour la Restauration de la Peinture Murale de KEITH HARING de

l’Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, 2013. Sotheby’s auction catalog. Paris: Sotheby’s.

-Waclawek, A. (2011). Graiti and Street Art. London, Thames and Hudson.


-MURAL Street Art Conservation, an online publication of the Spanish Group of the IIC


-Rescue Public Murals website at the American Institute for Conservation


–STreet Art COnservators (, https://elgr.


-VoCA (Voices in Contemporary Art).

THE GETTY SYMPOSIUM (2003) Mural Painting and Conservation in the Americas

-GCI, 2003. Mural Painting and Conservation in the Americas. Los Angeles, CA, May



-Drescher, T. W., 2003. “Priorities in Conserving Community Murals.” Los Angeles: The

Getty Conservation Institute. Paper presented at the Getty symposium “Mural

Painting and Conservation in the Americas,” Los Angeles, CA, May 16-17.


-Garfinkle, A., 2003. “The Legal and Ethical Consideration of Mural Conservation:

Issues and Debates.” Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute. Paper presented

at the Getty symposium “Mural Painting and Conservation in the Americas,” Los

Angeles, CA, May 16-17.


-Golden, Mark. 2003.”Mural Paints: Current and Future Formulations.” Los Angeles:

The Getty Conservation Institute. Paper presented at the Getty symposium “Mural

Painting and Conservation in the Americas,” Los Angeles, CA, May 16-17.


-Pitman Weber, J., 2003. “Politics and Practice of Community Public Art: Whose

Murals Get Saved?”. Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute. Paper presented

at the Getty symposium “Mural Painting and Conservation in the Americas,” Los

Angeles, CA, May 16-17.


-Pounds, J., 2003. “The Gift of Absence: Mural Restoration in a Policy Void”. Los

Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute. Paper presented at the Getty symposium

“Mural Painting and Conservation in the Americas,” Los Angeles, CA, May 16-



-Rainer, L., 2003. “The Conservation of Outdoor Contemporary Murals”. Los Angeles:

The Getty Conservation Institute. Paper presented at the Getty symposium “Mural

Painting and Conservation in the Americas,” Los Angeles, CA, May 16-17. (reprinted

in Conservation Vol.18,




-Shank, Will. 2003. Before the Paint Hits the Wall. Paper presented at the Getty

symposium “Mural Painting and Conservation in the Americas,” Los Angeles, CA, May




-Carlsson, B., Hop Louie, H. 2011. Street Art Cookbook: a Guide to Techniques and

Materials, Dokument Press.

-Chiantore Oscar, Scalarone Dominique & Learner Tom 2003.Characterization of

Artists’ Acrylic Emulsion Paints, International Journal of Polymer Analysis and

Characterization, 8:1, 67-82, DOI:


-Colombini, A. & Kaifas, D., 2010. Characterization of Some Orange And Yellow

Organic and Fluorescent Pigments by Raman Spectroscopy. E-Preservation Science.

-Germinario, G., van der Werf,I.,D., Sabbatini, L.,2016. Chemical characterisation of

spray paints by a multi-analytical (Py/GC–MS, FTIR, μ-Raman) approach.

Microchemical Journal,Volume 124,2016,Pages 929-939,ISSN 0026-


-Gutierrez, J., 1956. From Fresco to Plastics: New Materials for Mural and Easel

Paintings, Ottawa National Gallery of Canada.

-Jablonski E., Learner T., Hayes J. and Golden M., 2004. Conservation Concerns for

Acrylic Emulsion Paints: A Literature Review. Tate Papers no.2 Automn 2004.


-Kokkori, M., K. Sutherland, J. Salvant, F. Casadio, J. Barten, and C. Stringari. 2017.

“More than a pure technical sensation”: Twentieth-century metallic paints, their

formulations, and use in paintings. In ICOM-CC 18th Triennial Conference Preprints,

Copenhagen, 4–8 September 2017, ed. J. Bridgland, art. 0102. Paris: International

Council of Museums. http://icom-cc-publicationsonline.


-La Nasa, J., Orsini, S., Degano, B., Rava, A., Modugno, F., Colombini, M.P. 2016. “A

chemical study of organic materials in three murals by Keith Haring: a comparison of

painting tecniques”, Microchemical journal, vol. 124: 940-948.


-Learner T. J. S., Smithen P., Krueger J. W., and Schilling M. R.(eds), 2008. Modern

Paints Uncovered: Proceedings from the Modern Paints Uncovered Symposium, May

16–19, 2006, Tate Modern, London. Symposium. Organized by the Getty Conservation

Institute,. Tate, and the National Gallery of Art and the Tate Modern. Getty



-Learner T., 2000. A review of synthetic binding media in twentieth century paints.

The Conservator, 24:96-103.

-Learner T., Chiantore O., and Scalarone D., 2002. Ageing studies of acrylic emulsion

paints. Preprints of the 13th Triennial meeting of the ICOM Committee for

Conservation. Rio de Janeiro, pp911-919. London: James and James.

-Learner T., Schilling M., and de la Rie R.. 2002b. Modern Paints A New Collaborative

Research Project Conservation. The Getty Conservation Institute Newsletter Vol 17

n.3 2002 p. 18-20.


-Learner, T., 2001. The analysis of synthetic paints by pyrolysis-gas chromatography–

mass spectrometry (PyGCMS), Studies in Conservation 46 225–241.

-Learner, Thomas J.S.(2005) Analysis of modern paint, Getty Conservation Institute.

-Learner, Thomas J.S.(2005) Modern paints. Sackler NAS Colloquium. Scientific

Examination of Art Modern Techniques in Conservation and Analysis. P. 137-151.

– Schilling Michael, Lake Susan, Steele Elizabeth, and Quillen Lomax Suzanne.

2002.Modern Science and Contemporary Paintings Preserving an Evolving Legacy. The

Getty Conservation Institute Newsletter Vol 17 n.3 2002.



-Melchiorre Di Crescenzo, M., Zendri, E., S.nchez-Pons, M., Fuster-L.pez, L., Yus.-

Marco,D.,J., 2014.The use of waterborne paints in contemporary murals: Comparing

the stability of vinyl, acrylic and styrene-acrylic formulations to outdoor weathering

conditions. Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 107,2014,Pages 285-293,ISSN


-Ormsby B., Phenix A., .Cleaning Acrylic Emulsion Paintings: Conservation

Perspectives., The GCI Newsletter, Fall 2009, vol. 24 nÅã2, p. 13-15.


-Ormsby Bronwyn & Learner Tom (2013) Artists’ acrylic emulsion paints: materials,

meaning and conservation treatment options, AICCM Bulletin, 34:1, 57-65, DOI:

10.1179/ bac.2013.34.1.007 To link to this article:

-Ormsby, B. and A. Phenix. (2009), “Cleaning Acrylic Emulsion Paintings”.

Conservation Perspectives: The GCI Newsletter 24.2: 13-15.


-Ormsby, B., Learner, T., (2016). Recent developments in the cleaning of modern

paints. Conserving Modern Paints. Fall 2016. The GCI Newsletter.



-Piqu., F., Michele R. D., Parker, D. A. Scott, M. Schilling, and Saavedra P.rez M.,

1995. “Original technique of the mural América Tropical by David Alfaro Siqueiros.”

In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology IV: Symposium Held May 16-21, 1994,

Cancun, Mexico. ed. James R. Druzik, Jos. Luis Galv.n Madrid, I.C. Freestone and

George Segan Wheeler. 365-71. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings,

v. 352. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Materials Research Society.

-Ploeger R., Murray A., Hesp S., Scalarone D., .An investigation of the chemical

changes of artists’ acrylic paint films when exposed to water . In Materials issues in

art and archaeology VII, symposium held November 30 – December 3, 2004, Boston,

Massachusetts, USA, Warrendale, Pa, Materials research society, 2005, p. 49-56.

-Ploeger, R. Scalarone, D. Chiantore, O., 2008. The characterization of commercial

artists’ alkyd paints, Journal of Cultural Heritage 9 412–419.

-Rava, A., Shank, W., Colombini , P., Chiantore , O., Picollo, M., Palleschi V., 2015.

“Keith Haring in Pisa: cleaning and protection of an acrylic painting in an outdoor

environment” In S.nchez-Pons, M., Fuster-Lopez, L., and Shank, W., (eds.),

Conservation issues in modern and contemporary murals. Londres: Cambridge

Scholars Publishers, 184-208.

-Silva, M., Carb., M.D., L.pez, L.F., Mecklenburg, M., Martin-Rey, S., 2010.

Identification of additives in poly(vinylacetate) artist’s paints using PY-GC-MS,

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 397 357–367. DOI:10.1007/s00216-010-3505-2

-Siqueiros David Alfaro, 1979 Como se pinta un mural. Edition dell Taller Siqueiros de

Cuarnavaca.(first edition 1951).

-Soltan, Mohamed Abdeldayem Ahmed (2015) An investigation into the history of the

airbrush and the impact of the conservation treatment of airbrushed canvas

paintings. Doctoral thesis, Northumbria University.


-Standeven, H. 2011. House paints, 1900-1960 History and use. Los .ngeles: Getty

Conservation Institute Publications.

-Standeven, H. L. 2013. Oil-Based House Paints from 1900 to 1960: An Examination of

Their History and Development, with Particular Reference to Ripolin Enamels. Journal

of the American Institute for Conservation, 52:3, 127-139.

-Stavroudis, C. (2009), “Sorting Out Surfactants”. Newsletter (Western Association for

Art Conservation) 31(1): 18-21. http://cool.conservationus.


-Stavroudis, C. and T. Doherty. (2007), “A Novel Approach to Cleaning II: Extending

the: modular cleaning program to solvent gels and free solvents, part 1”. Newsletter

(Western Association for Art Conservation) 29(3): 9-15. http://cool.conservationus.

org/waac/wn/wn29/wn29-3/wn29-304.pdf Stavroudis, C. and T. Doherty. (2010),

“The Modular Cleaning Program in Practice: Application to Acrylic Paintings”.

Proceedings from Cleaning 2012, New Insights into the Cleaning of Paintings.

-Stavroudis, C., T. Doherty, and R. Wolbers. (2005), “A New Approach to Cleaning I:

Using mixtures of concentrated stock solutions and a database to arrive at an optimal

aqueous cleaning system”. Newsletter (Western Association for Art Conservation)

27(2): 17-28.

-Van Der Werf, I., Germinario, G., Palmisano, F., Sabbatini, L. 2011. “Characterisation

of permanent markers by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry”.

Analytical and Bioanalalytical Chemistry, 339: 3483-3490. DOI: 10.1007/s00216-011-


-Wolbers, R., A. Norbutus, and A. Lagalante (2013), Cleaning of Acrylic Emulsion

Paints: Preliminary Extractive Studies with Two Commercial Paint Systems. In New

insights into the cleaning of paintings: proceedings from the Cleaning 2010

International Conference, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia and Museum

Conservation Institute, edited by M. F. Mecklenburg, A. E. Charola and R. J. Koestler,





-Cobbe, R.A.C., (1976). Examination of modern paintings: technical information

received from artists. Studies in conservation 21 pp 25-33

-Masilamani R., 2008. Documenting Illegal Art: Collaborative Software, Online

Environments and New York City’s 1970s and 1980s Graffiti Art Movement. Art

Documentation: Journal of the Art Libraries Society of North America Vol. 27, No. 2

(Fall 2008), pp. 4-14.


-The Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI), 2017. Outdoor Mural Condition Report





-Aubert, E. (director), 1990. Drawing the Line: A Portrait of Keith Haring, 1990.

Documentary film. [DVD] West Long Branch, New Jersey: Kultur International Films,


-Dimetriou Elias, 2018. Documentary film for “close up”, ERT2 (trailer)

-Gounezos George , 2014. Alive In The Concrete (English Subtitles) Greek Graffiti


-Gounezos George , 2015. WD Mural Exhibition, Late Night Tale.

-Mexi, K., Mandelenis, G., Vathi, N., Delimitrou, G., Taxidi, G., 2015. Documentary for

Staco team. Department of Cultural Technology and Communication University of

the Aegean and Vouli TV chanel.


-Piazzese Giovanni, Greek street artists bring back color to Athens. Deutsche



-Pottakis, N., 2017. Dialogues, Documentary, ERT 3.

-Shank W. A heritage to be protected by

-Shank W.Interview about the conservation of the TOWER of Keith Haring at L’h.pital

Necker des Enfants Malades

-Soldani A. (direction), Burchielli R. (production), 1990. Keith Haring Progetto Italia,

Documentary film. [DVD] Pisa: Comune di Pisa & Ondavideo.